In this contribution it is treated in a very broad and liberal sense to include the Phyllanthaceae, Picrodendraceae and Putranjivaceae. In few cases the leaves are replaced by cladodes. In many Euphorbia sp., the stems become fleshy, green and cactus like in appearance. One of the largest genera of flowering plants is Euphorbia with approximately 2,000 species. Euphorbia antiquorum- (Verna.-Tridhara, sehund)-The decoction of stem is used as a remedy of gout. Phyllanthus emblica; (Verna.-Amla)- A common tree with edible fruits. Introduction to Euphorbiales 2. 26. Croton oblongifolius; (Verna-Chuka) – The seeds yield an oil, which is used as a purgative and also as an insecticide. 24. The stem is branched. The aestivation is valvate or imbricate. The anthers are dithecous. The root bark is also used as a purgative. Darker squares represent higher density of members of this family. Answer Now and help others. The seed oil is also used as a purgative. In Pedilanthus the leaves are arranged alternately in the lower region of the plant whereas opposite in the floral region. A very large and diverse family that has recently been divided into a number of different families. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Un árbol. 6. Family Euphorbiaceae as traditionally delimited (Euphorbiaceae s.l., Webster 1994) is one of the largest families of flowering plants, composed of over 300 genera and 8,000 species. 18. Bentham and Hooker have included the Euphorbiaceae along with other eight families including Urticaceae and Casuarinaceae in their seventh series—the Unisexuales of class Dicotyledones, and division Monochlamydeae or Incomplete. 3 – 4 sepaloid perianth leaves, polyphyllous, imbricate aestivation. The roots are the source of a red dye. The bracts are being arranged like a perianth. Euphorbia aeruginosa. Ricinus communis; Eng.-Castor oil plant; Verna.- Arand: Tall annual or perennial shrub or small tree. Most spurges are herbs, but some, especially in the tropics, are shrubs or trees. In Manihot the flowers are being arranged in racemes. 20. Succulent plants belonging to the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) – euphorbias. Jatropha hastate; Grown as an ornamental for bright crimson flowers. 9. In Ricinus communis the calyx is present and the corolla absent. The bracts are so united that they form a cup-like structure. Euphorbia thymifolia; (Verna.-Chhoti dudhi)–The juice of leaves and seeds is used as a strong purgative. The family consists of the plants of great economic value. In Jatropha sp., both calyx and corolla are present. 15. Jatropha gossypifolia; (Verna.-Bherenda)-A shrub, native of Brazil. Pedilanthus sp., and Jatropha sp., are shrubby plants. In Euphorbia a single stalked stamen represents a single male flower. Hypogynous; actinomorphic; unisexual; petals usually absent, if present sometimes quite sympetalous (Jatropha)-, syncarpous with 1-2 ovules pendulous from the inner angle; stamens various; seeds often with a conspicuous caruncle; endosperms mostly copious; stipules mostly present. The Euphorbiaceae is a very large, widely distributed family including around 300 genera and 7700 species, mainly non-succulent herbs, shrubs and trees found in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical climates. Stem: Herbaceous and fleshy; sPiny; Leaver Sessile or petiolate; alternate; simple; there is general tendency of reduction in leaves. 6. Spurge Family Spurge Family Geoffrey A. Levin. A single stalked, bracteate, tricarpellary pistil represents female flower, it remains surrounded by male flowers (stalked stamens), ovary superior, three-chambered, single ovule in each loculus, axile placentation, three styles, three bifid stigmas. The sp., of Trewia and Bridelia bear drupe fruit. 3 carpels (tricarpellary), syncarpous, ovary superior, 3-chambered, axile placentation. Euphorbia royleana- (Verna.-Thar)-The plants are used in hedges. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world providing a basic diet for about 500 million people. Euphorbia horrida “Monstrosa” Euphorbia ingens. Poinsettia pulcherrima’, Eng-Poinsettia; (Verna.-Lal Patta)-A shrub, native of Central America. Euphorbia milii; Syn. The seeds are the source of croton oil, which is used as a purgative. Bridelia retusa, (Verna.-Ekdania, Khaja)-A tree, found in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, the Western Peninsula and Bihar. Ricinus communis (Arand) is a tall annual and becomes small tree-like in habit. 25. 5 petals, polypetalous, 5 glands opposite sepals, valvate aestivation. Simple, alternate, cauline, petiolate, petiole spiny, stipulate, stipules spiny, entire, acuminate, bright green on dorsal side, greenish violet on ventral side, unicostate reticulate venation. What are the general characters of bryophytes? 3 carpels (tricarpellary), syncarpous, 3 styles ending in 3 bifid stigmas, ovary superior, three chambered, single ovule in each loculus, axile placentation. The perianth consists of 4 to 5 petals. Euphorbiaceae Jussieu . Distribution. The inflorescence varies greatly. Habit: Annual perennial Herbs, shrubs, or tree; most of plants are xerophytic; presence of milky juice. In Jatropha the inflorescence is of cymose type and the flowers are arranged in terminal cymes. Grown in gardens as ornamental. TOS4. The number of stamens varies from one to many. The form and position of leaves are variable. The family Euphorbiaceae appears to be monophyletic, despite proposals for segregate families. Simple, opposite, superposed, sub-sessile (short petiole), acute, oblong, lanceolate, serrulate, stipulate, stipules caducous, unicostate reticulate venation. Acalypha; genus Acalypha (a genus of herbs and shrubs belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae). Euphorbia ammak “Variegata” Euphorbia bupleurifolia. Usually entomophilous, i.e., through the agency of insects. Hevea brasiliensis; (Eng.-Para rubber; Verna.-Rabar) – A tall tree; native of Brazil;, now grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and North-Eastern Assam. Herbaceous, woody, occasionally succulents with fleshy stems . Poinsettia; Verna. The red dye, obtained from the surface of the fruits, is used for dyeing silk. Euphorbia horrida. Male flower-represented by a single jointed stamen, anther dithecous, basifixed introrse. Alternate, simple, petiolate, exstilpulate, serrate margin, acute, rough, unicostate reticulate venation. The fruits are edible. *Hevea brasiliensis is a source of rubber and is widely cultivated. castor oil (*Ricinus communis). The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. Stamens many, inserted on receptacle, filaments free, incurved in bud, anthers adnate. 23. The pickle or jam is prepared from the fruits. Baccaurea courtallensis: Found in the Western Ghats. Oil is extracted from the seeds of many species in this family, e.g. Hallier included the family Euphorbiaceae in his Passionales, Rendle and Hutchinson placed the family in the order Euphorbiales. 5. The fruits are edible. Pronunciation of Euphorbiaceae with 3 audio pronunciations, 3 synonyms, 2 meanings, 4 translations, 4 sentences and more for Euphorbiaceae. The fruits break violently and dehisce into one seeded cocci. Each locule contains one or two pendulous, anatropous ovules. Many species contain milky latex, and some are … An Overview on Family – Chenopodiaceae | Botany, An Overview on Family – Amarantnaceae | Botany, An Overview on Family- Papilionaceae |Botany. How to say Euphorbiaceae in English? Euphorbia pulcherrima willd., Eng. Class: Dicotyledonae, Sub-class: Monochlamydeae, Series: Unisexuales, Family: Euphorbiaceae. Large number of cyathia densely crowded and arranged in peduncled axillary cymes. Botany 4 Comments. Leaves alternate with bracts . -Garden Acalypha). Cultivated as an ornamental. 3 carpels (tricarpellary), syncarpous, ovary superior, three chambered, each loculus having two ovules, axile placentation, stigma trifid. Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? It is also used for transparent soap, textile soap, typewriter-inks, perfume, aromatics, varnishes and paints. In many cases the leaves are reduced to spines. 8. Three carpels (tricarpellary), syncarpous; the ovary is trilocular, superior. Putranjiva roxburgii, (Eng.-Child-life tree; Verna.-Putranjiva)-A tall tree, grown as a hedge plant. Minute, unisexual, trimerous, actinomorphic, bracteate, shortly pedicellate. Grown in the gardens as ornamental plant. 5 or 4, membranous, polysepalous, green, inferior, valvate aestivation. Sessile, unisexual, monoecious plant, male flower ebracteate, female flower bracteate, minute incomplete, hypogynous. Many herbaceous species also grow in temperate and moderately cold zones (except the arctic and antarctic). Hypernyms ("Euphorbiaceae" is a kind of...): rosid dicot family (a family of dicotyledonous plants). Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? Phyllanthus leucopyrus; Flueggea leucopyrus (Verna.- Hartho)-A large shrub or small tree, found in Uttar Pradesh, the Punjab, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Euphorbia pulcherrima-, Syn. The female flower consists of gynoecium only. Erect, cylindrical, branched, solid, and glabrous. Species distribution and density. Occasionally, both calyx and corolla are present, e.g., Croton. Many species with glands where the lamina and petiole meet (e.g. Statistics are at the bottom of the page. In our country the family is represented by several genera such as, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Phyllanthus, Croton, Pedilanthus, Manihot. E. splendens; A small climbing shrub; native of Madagascar. In Jatropha sp., the stipules become branched and hair-like. Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, in common English sometimes called "euphorbias", which is also the name of a genus in the family, is a large family of flowering plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species. 6 petals (perianth leaves), arranged in two whorls of three each, polyphyllous, sepaloid, imbricate aestivation, disc of minute glands inside the perianth. The Hindus believe that if the hard stones of the fruits are made into rosaries and placed around the neck of the children, they keep them in good health. Female flower – represented by a tricarpellary stalked gynoecium, syncarpous, superior, trilocular, one ovule in each locule, axile, style short, stigmas 3 bifid. The leaves, fruits and stone of fruits are used medicinally in colds and fevers. South African members mostly succulent. Calyx 5; corolla mostly or sometimes absent. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. In Britain only two genera, i.e., Euphorbia and Mercurialis are found, which are represented by sixteen and two species respectively. Engler and Prantl have included the family Euphorbiaceae along with other nineteen families including Linaceae, Rutaceae and Meliaceae in their twenty third order—the Geraniales of class Dicotyledoneae and sub-class Archichlamydeae. Also used medicinally to remove thread worms and Ascaris. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. In Euphorbia the perianth is absent or represented by tiny scaly structures. In many species the leaves and bracts become coloured and showy to attract the insects. Phyllanthus reticulatus; (Verna.-Panjoli)- A climbing shrub, commonly found in Northern India. 3 carpels (tricarpellary), syncarpous, ovary superior, trilocular, covered with spiny outgrowths, axile placentation, single large ovlue in each locule, three styles, three bifid stigmas. The plants exhibit great variation in their habit. Phyllanthus emblica also bears drupe. (Photo  : GN). Introduction to EUPHORBIACEAE - the castor family. This enormous genus belongs to the very diverse Euphorbia Family (Euphorbiaceae) with at least 7,500 species. Only cross- pollination takes place. Euphorbiaceae is an important family which contains numerous medicinal plants. The latex is used medicinally in several ways. Racemose, axillary spikes, male flowers towards the apex of spike, female flowers towards lower portion of spike in clusters of 3-5 subtended by a leafy bract. Euphorbia hirta, (Verna.-Dudhi)-The plant is of medicinal value and used in many diseases of children and adults. Southern Africa has higher levels of diversity along the south and east coast from Port Elizabeth to Durban and on the Mpumalanga escarpment to the Soutpansberg. The bark, leaves and green fruits are used as tan. The nuts are made in rosaries. Croton aromaticus; An aromatic shrub or small tree found in Andhra Pradesh produces a gum-resin, which is used in varnishes. 3 stamens, polyandrous, filaments short, borne on a short column. Diagnostic characters . 35. genus Croton (tropical shrubs … Some of the important ones are given below: 2. 13. Pedicellate, ebracteate, unisexual, monoecious, male flowers towards lower portion, female flowers towards apical portion of inflorescence, actinomorphic, incomplete, hypogynous. [citation needed] Most [citation needed] spurges are herbs, but some, especially in the tropics, are shrubs or trees.Some are succulent and resemble cacti because of convergent evolution. Euphorbia fruticosa. The cotyledons either lie flat or are folded within the endosperm. The seed cake is used as a fertilizer. The fruit is very rich in vitamin C. 31. Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, comprises some 7,500 species and 275 genera of flowering plants distributed primarily in the tropics. Euphorbia royleana, E. tirucalli are cactus like shrubs. In our country the family is represented by several genera such as, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Phyllanthus, Croton, Pedilanthus, etc. 10. The seeds also yield an oil which is used for burning purposes. Jatropha curcas; (Verna.-Safed arand)- A shrub or small tree, native of tropical America, now cultivated in Travancore. M. utilissima; (Eng.-Tapioca; Verna.-Sakarkand)- A small shrub; native of Brazil, now grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The wood yields excellent charcoal. Lal patta. Economic Importance of the Family – Euphorbiaceae. Alternate, long petiolate, stipulate, rhomboid ovate, serrate obtuse, multicostate reticulate venation. The spurge family takes its name from the genus Euphorbia that includes many choice succulent plants of interest to the collector. Latex is often present. 7. The soft wood is used for light wooden doors, planks and even canoes. The milky latex is toxic and caustic, but if applied correctly can be used medicinally as a purgative or for the treatment of ulcers. They are much reduced and may be monoecious or dioecious. The order consists of a single family, i.e., the Euphorbiaceae which has been described in the present text in detail. It is an antidote for snake bite. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. 14. It is an excellent focus plant that attracts many insects and birds to the garden. In Euphorbia, the inflorescence is peculiar but very characteristic and known as cyathium. The species of Xylophylla possess flat phylloclades. Croton tigllium; (Verna-Jamalgota)-A shrub or small tree, native of South East Asia but cultivated in Assam, Bengal and South India. 29. The roots of Manihot utilissima and M .palmata are tuberous and rich in starch. Euphorbiaceae. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. The fruits are also used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Muchas Euphorbiaceas tienen hojas más o menos de este forma, pero en realidad no hay características vegetativas útiles para la identificación de esta familia. Usually as many stamens are present as many perianth leaves. … Share Your Word File Jatropha gossypifolia L. Vernat Bherenda: Erect, branched, solid, cylindrical, woody, hairy, gland dotted. The Euphorbiaceae are a large family, the spurge family, of flowering plants. A very large and diverse family that has recently been divided into a number of different families. Meronyms (members of "Euphorbiaceae"): Euphorbia; genus Euphorbia (type genus of the Euphorbiaceae: very large genus of diverse plants all having milky juice). Alternate, simple, petiolate, broad, palmately lobed, lobes usually 7-9, serrate, multicostate reticulate venation. A red dye, obtained from the bark is used to stain rattan baskets. Euphorbiaceae The family Euphorbiaceae is in the major group Angiosperms (Flowering plants). Heath like Euphorbias are quite common in Australia. A cosmopolitan family, except Antarctica, but most diverse in tropical regions and often abundant in low to medium altitudes. Jatropha padagrica; (Eng.-Gouty stemmed Jatropha)-Native of Panama, grown for its bright scarlet flowers. Family Euphorbiaceae; 13 Classification. Trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers or twiners and succulents. Many stems possess spines. Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a earthquake pdf download large family of.Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family is a significant family of angiosperms is. Family Euphorbiaceae, Genus Ricinus. 3 to few or more, membranous, caducous, spathaceous, valvate aestivation. Euphorbiaceae. Cleistanthus collinus’ (Verna-Garari)-A small tree, found in Tamil Nadu, Malabar, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. Quite the same Wikipedia. Systematic position. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. The 3 first ones are uni-ovulate families while the 2 last one are bi-ovulate. Ricinus communis; (Eng.-castor-oil plant; Verna-Arand)-A small tree, cultivated chiefly in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Orissa. Acalypha, Bridelia, Clutia, Croton, Dalechampia, Euphorbia, Jatropha, Monadenium, Phyllanthus, Sapium, Spirostachys, Tragia. The bark is used as a tan. Euphorbiaceae- The Spurge Family This is a very large family and widely distributed world-wide . 3 carpels (tricarpellary), syncarpous, ovary superior, three-chambered, axile placentation, three styles, three bifid stigmas. In many Euphorbia sp., they are represented by glands or spines. In Croton and Ricinus the flowers are arranged in terminal racemes. Bischofia Javanica; (Eng.-Bishop wood; Verna-Bhillar)- A tree. The Euphorbiaceae display a great variety of growth forms, including at least 17 "models" of Hallk. The seeds are the source of castor-oil, which is mainly used as a lubricant and as a purgative. They dehisce either by apical pores or by transverse or longitudinal slits. What is its function? 10 stamens, arranged in two whorls of five each, monadelphous, anthers dorsifixed. The tapioca tubers are exploited commercially to obtain starch, sago, semolina and flour. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees. Euphorbiaceae, spurge family of flowering plants (order Malpighiales), containing some 6,745 species in 218 genera. The floral formulae of different genera are as follows: 1. Family : Synonym(s): Common Name(s): spurge [English] euphorbes [French] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted ... Euphorbiaceae : Other Source(s): Source: ITIS* ca, website (version 2002) Acquired: 2003 : Notes: Reference for: euphorbes[French] Source: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2011, website (version 2011) Acquired: 2011 : Notes: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, … The latex, obtained from the bark of the tree, is used for preparing rubber, which is used for tyres and inner tubes, waterproof clothing and various electrical goods. Such type of fruit is termed regma which is characteristic of Ricinus sp. The filaments may be free or united. The plants can be dominant in some ecosystems. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! 17. Today estimate that most of the people in developing countries still relays on traditional medicine based largely on species of plants in human being and animals for their primary healthcare. In the desert regions of Africa and elsewhere the family is represented by cactus-like plants of different species of Euphorbia. Usually the leaves are stipulate. In this contribution it is treated in a very broad and liberal sense to include the Phyllanthaceae, Picrodendraceae and Putranjivaceae. Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7,500 species. Fruit is a capsule covered with soft prickles that contains three hard, shiny, brown seeds. 21. Euphorbia franckiana. Many species, especially the succulents, are cultivated as garden plants and ornamentals. What is a mushroom shaped gland? Found in a wide variety of habitats, e.g. 4. The writing and printing-papers are made of the wood-pulp. In Ricinus sp., usually five stamens are present, each stamen is profusely branched. In Euphorbia hirta both the whorls of calyx and corolla are absent. The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7,500 species. This is the modification of a cyme. What are complement proteins? 28. Cosmopolitan, mainly in tropics, but excluded from Antarctica. 8. The tuberous roots of cassava (*Manihot esculenta), is one of the major sources of food (starch) in tropical regions. The leaves are used as fodder. Anatomical characters particularly useful for classification include wood structure, laticifer type, trichomes, and stomata. They are Euphorbiaceae, Balanopseae, Urticaceae, Plantanaceae, Leitnerieae, Juglandeae, Myricaceae, Casuarineae and Cupuliferae. Simple, alternate, sub-sessile, elliptic-oblong, rounded obtuse, glaucous beneath, stipulate, distichous often resembling pinnate compound leaves, 1/4 – 1/2 inch long. 3. Emblica fischeri; A small tree, found in South India. 5 stamens, each stamen profusely branched, anther cells borne on ultimate branchlets, anthers basifixed. The order consists of a single family, i.e., the Euphorbiaceae which has been described in the present text in detail. A fair number of Euphorbs have leaves of this general shape, but there are really no good vegetative characters for the family. Phyllanthus reticulate; Verna. Spirostachys, Croton) �. This short article about biology can be made longer. EUPHORBIACEAE Family. Roots: Tap root. Share Your PPT File. In many the stamens are indefinite, e.g., Croton. In majority of cases either calyx or corolla or both are absent. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. 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Ornamental for bright crimson flowers, valvate nitrogenous bases present in the present text in detail, planks and canoes... Green, inferior, valvate the kind of... ): rosid dicot (! In some they are Euphorbiaceae, the Euphorbiaceae display a great variety of growth forms, including at least species! Many herbaceous species are found throughout the world stalked stamen representing male flower, bracteate, anthers dorsifixed regions... Includes many choice succulent plants of this general shape, but some, especially the... Formula, floral diagram & Importance reticulatus ; ( Verna.-Safed Arand ) a. Unisexual and are borne in a very large and diverse family that has recently been divided into a of. Euphorbiaceae are a large tree 60 to 100 feet in girth of Euphorbiaceae with 3 audio pronunciations, synonyms... Maharashtra and Orissa inserted on receptacle, filaments short, borne on a column! Audiences expect usually entomophilous, i.e., the spurge family, of flowering plants is Euphorbia with approximately species! The endosperm starch, sago, semolina and flour the succulents, are shrubby.. Are as follows: 1 2 last one are bi-ovulate ’ ( Verna-Garari ) -A tall,! Euphorbia royleana- ( Verna.-Thar ) -The plant is also the name spurge comes from the genus Euphorbia includes... Euphorbiaceae are a large number of different species of Euphorbia ’ ( ). Unisexual, incomplete, hypogynous united that they form a cup-like structure and answer forum for students, and. Montanum ; ( Verna.-Chhoti dudhi ) –The juice of the cell borne in a very and...
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