His e-mail address is sharper1@upenn.edu. It then discusses how prejudice is institutionalised and legitimised in schools, before turning to the main thrust of its investigation: the extent to which international education (K-12) can reduce prejudice. There is also evidence that co-operative learning: bringing different groups together to work on a project, can increase perspective taking and thus, empathy. This article discusses theories of prejudice and how they inform an understanding of bullying, conflict, and violence in schools. Those in the control group who read the same material but are not instructed to empathise do not change their scores as much. Topics are taught with an explicit focus on how structural prejudice and racism caused or supported such events. However, in doing so, they should draw on the wealth of evidence on how best to do this. Some pupils may have a vested interest in stopping racism and, as such, may be able to work to help bring an end to racist practices. Form a diversity task force or club. More than five decades after Brown v. Board of Education and four decades after the Civil Rights era, racial prejudice remains a national problem cutting across social class and culture. One variable that makes us less prejudiced is education. By the age of seven, children are aware of the groups to which they belong, and prefer being a member of an “in-group”, such as fans of a certain football team or members of a different ethnic group. Unfortunately, this was not always the case. There are several different categories of social psychology techniques used to reduce prejudice attitudes in individuals and among groups. Half of the children heard a message recorded by a teacher instructing them to act in a kind and inclusive manner towards people from other groups and schools, or risk the consequences. Going forward, teachers can adopt an anti-bias lens, a form of social-emotional learning that respects diversity and challenges sexism, racism, ableism, classism, and other societal prejudices. Medical schools are yet another well respected and sought-after academic institutions replete with racial prejudice and stereotypes. When children thought their team mates within the competition would be able to read their answers to the survey, they reverted to saying they wouldn’t like or trust members of the other team. 4 Powerful Ways to Reduce Racism and Discrimination in Schools It’s hard to maintain professionalism when you’re dealing with students who present challenging behaviors. Prejudices are preconceived and ingrained ideas and opinions about others. Though we can draw only limited conclusions from this uncontrolled, small-scale ‘experiment’, it does illustrate how this type of exercise, where people experience discrimination themselves, could potentially develop empathy and make people less likely to be prejudiced towards others in the future. Unfortunately, I’m pretty sure it required improvement. However, it also creates some important stipulations: Despite many advances in equal rights during the past century, in recent months divisions in society feel evermore apparent. Previous reviews have summarized evi- Allow them to do so by creating an after school club or similar school-related group dedicated specifically to reducing racism. The children were then given a survey and asked to rate how much they liked, trusted and would like to play with members of both their own, and the other team. Research suggests that cross-race friendships are an important factor in decreasing prejudice, probably because they help decrease stress and fears of rejection that may occur in cross-group situations. Only then can they avoid some of the potential pitfalls. Eliminating Racism in the Classroom by Richard Morgan, D'Youville College "It is your responsibility to change society if you think of yourself as an educated person." Anti-racist teaching involves teaching pupils about historic and current events rooted in prejudice and discrimination, such as the Holocaust or the Slave Trade. The evidence on the effectiveness of anti-racist teaching is mixed. In the experiment, participants took part in a pre-study survey, seemingly unrelated to the later experiment in which they reported five ‘idiosyncratic interests’ such as their favourite book. The Delors Report (UNESCO, 1996) describes four pillars of education: learning to learn, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together. Additionally, researchers consistently emphasise the importance of highlighting similarities between different groups, avoiding stereotypes and building on existing connections or friendship between different groups. Among the most powerful influences on young people’s behaviour are norms: the rules, stated or otherwise, which govern society. The following chapters are included: (1) This avoids them hypothesising that a particular group tends to have lower status or poorer outcomes due to some inherent or biological trait. The following techniques all work to decrease prejudice through emotional methods. At the root of many cases of bullying are stereotypes, or generalisation about a group of people, and prejudice, an unfavourable opinion about a group based on such stereotypes. Unlearning prejudice and developing social awareness is a lifelong process, and it is unrealistic to expect instant results with young children. Form a group of interested students to start a club related to the issue. 4 min read When teachers and schools remind children to be inclusive, ... How to reduce prejudice among groups of children at school ... but little work has tested how efficient it is in beating prejudice. A 1973 study, replicated Elliot’s experiment, splitting children into ‘yellow’ and ‘green’ groups and found some evidence that this type of role play had an effect on prejudice and intergroup behaviour. However, there are issues with this approach. Many schools adopt such a method, but little work has tested how efficient it is in beating prejudice.Making inclusion the normIn a study we just published, my colleagues and I carried out an experiment with 229 seven to 11-year-olds to explore this further. Whether you’re in a school or an office, one of the best ways to help reduce racism is to hire a racially diverse staff. Our Social cohesion report and our report for 3FF: ’The role of Intercultural education in schools and communities’, present further insights and examples on how to create a whole school culture which fosters inclusion and how encouraging pupils of different backgrounds to interact builds understanding between groups. Providing examples of majority-group members working to end racism; Pointing out similarities between groups; Avoiding stereotyping or suggesting that all members of a group have the same experience. Some research has found that anti-racist teaching reduces prejudice and increases empathy. This review is not the first to pose this ques-tion. Researchers believe that fostering genuine relationships with members of ‘outgroups’ and thus taking part in the ‘cultural activities’ of another group can reduce implicit bias. [Commentaries from Bernadette M. Hickman-Maynard, Robert L. Selman and Clark McKown are included. This blog will examine what research can tell us about how to tackle these issues, highlighting the importance of taking an evidence-led approach to reducing prejudice, since some well-intentioned activities may in fact exacerbate rather than diminish negative attitudes. As discussed in part one of this series of blogs, one mechanism in the development of prejudice is the manner in which adults draw attention, either implicitly or explicitly, to certain categorisations. PhD Candidate, Social Developmental Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London. In the first section, we discuss the invitational method proposed by Haberman (1994) that is intended to facilitate teachers' self-awareness with regard to their own prejudice. Studies have found that over 8 weeks, the empathy scores of children in ‘Jigsaw classrooms’ increased and intergroup relationships improved. Things You Can Do in the Schools: Reducing Racial Prejudice to Reducing Racism. Many schools adopt such a method, but little work has tested how efficient it is in beating prejudice. After the lessons, ‘European American’ children who learnt about racism held more positive and less negative attitudes towards African Americans compared to the control group. This was still the case even when the child’s team mates had asked them to exclude their competitors. This is problematic because viewing group members as highly similar (a sense that ‘they’re all the same’) has been linked to higher prejudice. However, new evidence suggests that schools which work hard to promote an inclusive environment can help curb negative attitudes between groups of children in the classroom. argue that multicultural education ‘may increase the likelihood that children will place individuals in to rigid categories, thereby…increasing stereotypes.’. pupils must not feel they are forced to take part; and. Participants were introduced to photographs of children they would never meet and told some were going to be their team mates and the rest the other team. Teachers can use a storybook as a way to introduce and illustrate these difficult topics for younger school age children. Much research has focused on how self-identity is reliant upon our membership of flourishing social groups. Others suggest that learning about discrimination experienced by all members of a particular group could encourage children to view members of that group as highly similar rather than internally diverse. In the main experiment, participants took part in a conversation with a Latina American ‘undercover’ researcher who posed as another participant, and the researchers manipulated two conditions: This resulted in four different conditions, see table 1. This suggests that nonjudgmental awareness, even when not specifically focused on reducing prejudice, can help reduce unconscious biases. For this group, effects on interest in Mexican cultural activities and attitudes toward immigrants maintained at a 6 month follow up. Boy being builied via Monkey Business Images/www.shutterstock.com, self-identity is reliant upon our membership of flourishing social groups, participants suggesting they would verbally bully. Our research pinpoints that we can successfully intervene in schools to help minimise prejudice between groups of children. Having high empathy makes children less likely to want to cause distress to others and more likely to want to alleviate it. Anecdotes from families, research studies, and discrimination lawsuits all reveal that children of color face bias in schools. Eliminating Racism in the Classroom by Richard Morgan, D'Youville College "It is your responsibility to change society if you think of yourself as an educated person." Norms within the school context are often explained to children within school charters – a document or statement that outlines how teachers expect pupils to behave in order to create a harmonious learning environment. Initiatives such as Black History Month and GRT History Month could be particularly problematic as they can feel tokenistic in nature and perhaps reflect an approach in which multiculturalism sits in a specific part of the timetable rather than being embedded throughout school culture and the curriculum. The intention is to increase all pupils’ knowledge and understanding of different groups by ‘including’ them in curricula. School grounds can be the site of bullying and violent behaviour between students. At first, she made the brown-eyed children the ‘superior’ group, favouring those children and pointing out mistakes and weaknesses of the blue-eyed ‘inferior’ group. More than 500 studies of intergroup relations are reviewed to develop recommendations to help educators choose effective programs to reduce racial prejudice and stereotyping in their schools. Levy et al. Prejudice reduction is a necessary component of multicultural education (Banks, 1994). October 2011, Vol 42, No. Shaun R. Harper is a professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania, founder and executive director of the Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, and president of the Association for the Study of Higher Education. Therefore, like all sophisticated and powerful educational efforts, reducing prejudice requires a conscious effort to go beyond intuitive, lazy thinking and primal instincts; it is an act of the will involving critical thinking, self-analysis, metacognition and deliberate selflessness - things that might not come naturally to us and have to be worked on. For instance, when learning about the civil rights movement teachers could encourage pupils to consider and imagine the feelings of Black people who experienced institutionalised racism and inequality in the US during that time. A plethora of children's books have stories about stereotypes and prejudice. The best way to do this would be to think of a particular situation where inter-group conflict exists, like between schools, racial groups, gangs, competing countries, etc. View our, my research on the under-representation of GRT pupils in higher education, ’The role of Intercultural education in schools and communities’. People who are more educated express fewer stereotypes and prejudice in general. Copyright © 2010–2020, The Conversation US, Inc. 2. If these are the basis of meaningful education, then learning how to reduce prejudice is surely a … discrimination) for the social status inequalities which children are frequently aware of. Institutional racism doesn’t just affect adults but children in K-12 schools as well. White American college students that are placed with Black American roommates show reduced implicit bias for example. Nontheless, if you use cases of bias as a vehicle for education, it is quite possible to reduce students' prejudice over time. Introduction. In the past, it’s been shown that this leads to participants suggesting they would verbally bully a member of an opposing team, if members of their own team in the competition asked them to. Acknowledging obvious differences is not the problem -- placing negative value judgments on them is. These resources are meant to aid students in inspecting and challenging their own prejudices. ‘Contact’ with other groups has long been shown to improve intergroup attitudes. aimed at prejudice reduction in schools, work-places, neighborhoods, and regions beset by in-tergroup conflict. Loving-kindness meditation —a practice that involves consciously sending out compassionate thoughts toward others—may also help. In 2020, the sudden arrival of COVID-19 left the government without enough time to prepare an adequate alternative to GCSE and A-Level examinations. Multicultural education involves explicitly teaching about the history and culture of specific groups. Levy et al. It’s clear that prejudices are present among young people, due to a complex range of influences, many beyond their schools’ control. This means educating students about the history of heterosexism, and encouraging these students to speak out in support of the LGBT community. Elliot, a third grade (year 4) teacher in Iowa, divided her class into blue eyed and brown eyed children. This shows that ‘one off’ events which focus on multicultural education do not necessarily translate into a multicultural and inclusive curriculum. A multitude of ‘empathy training’ experiments have built on these ideas and have found that we can enhance empathy with training. The evidence on the effectiveness of anti-racist teaching is mixed. This can be done in a school or university setting. The ‘Jigsaw classroom’ technique involves children of different races, classes, gender or nationality working together co-operatively on academic projects. This chapter will outline and discuss several techniques that teachers can use in their efforts to prevent or reduce prejudice in students. But it is vital to recognise that school rules alone are not enough to change attitudes. In turn, increased empathy is linked to ‘prosocial’ behaviour. As a teacher, I did regular key word tests and awarded merit…, Receive our latest thoughts in your inbox, We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on the CfEY website. The study found that only condition 1, where participants felt a social connection and were free to choose whether they participated in a cultural activity, reduced participants’ implicit racial bias against Latino Americans. A few months ago, during my research on the under-representation of GRT pupils in higher education (for Kings College London), a young Romany Gypsy told me about her experience of school. Too few of us were ever afforded opportunities to discuss or meaningfully learn about race in our K–12 schools, undergraduate studies, or doctoral programs. Recognize holidays and events relating to a variety of cultural and ethnic groups. Evidence-based prejudice reduction approaches are presented that teachers and school administrators can use to improve school culture and climate. Perspective asking: uses role-playing to help members of one group act out and argue the perspective of a conflicting group. In this blog I suggest a way forward through two simple policies that can increase access to education and housing for young people while reducing…, Writing “Bridging the Word Gap at Transition: The Oxford Language Report 2020”, I couldn’t help reflecting back on my own time in the classroom and what I did (or didn’t do) to support my pupils’ vocabulary. An education for less prejudice. This is the good news: Parents can be a positive force in combating prejudice in their children. How Friendships Can Reduce Racial Prejudice, and What Schools Can Do to Help Sometimes it seems like the older we get, the harder it is to make friends. These children scored higher in the survey – meaning they were more likely to trust and like the opposite team – compared with participants who didn’t hear a message from the teacher. The researchers discuss that learning about racism can potentially reduce prejudice as it provides an alternative explanation (i.e. Experimental group: children received history lessons about famous African Americans which included information about racism and discrimination; Control group: children received identical lessons but with information about racism omitted. Other techniques, such as education or discussion between social groups, can also be used to help reduce prejudice and discrimination, This suggests that incorporating elements of empathy training during multicultural or anti-racist education could increase empathy and reduce prejudice. proposes that these negative side effects could be mitigated by: Empathy training aims to help children understand the experiences and emotions of others’. These results suggest that telling children to be more inclusive can be a useful intervention at the school level, but must work in conjunction with an effort to encourage peer groups to be positive and inclusive between each other. When people read about another person’s experience of being discriminated against under instructions to ‘imagine how the person feels’, their empathy scores increase and prejudice scores decrease. (Contains 3 tables.) They’re disciplined more harshly, less likely to be identified as gifted, or to have access to quality teachers, to name but a few examples. Such an intervention is akin to the norms promoted by teachers, in either a formal charter-style, or more informally in the classroom. Understanding historical and current racism and discrimination is important part of accepting that racial prejudice exists and working to reduce it but it’s clear these topics need to be handled with care. [17] This may help explain why the…, This blog was written by CfEY’s newest recruit, Baz Ramaiah The COVID-crisis has badly damaged the long-term life prospects of young people and the government must act to help them. the explicit programs to reduce racial prejudice in schools are an important – albeit largely indirect – legacy of the Brown v. Board decision, and therefore a careful review of their effectiveness and promise is necessary to guide both future Here are some of the ways that parents can help reduce negative bias in … One experiment compared the effect of different history lessons’ content on children’s attitudes to ‘African Americans’. This could in theory make them less likely to be prejudiced. One method of reducing prejudice -- the contact hypothesis -- assumes that the very nature of requiring people from different social groups to work together reduces prejudicial attitudes among those groups. In doing so, they gain a sense of understanding and even allegiance with that group. 1 ... schools or communities for example. For example, one clause might be that all children have the right to learn in peace, regardless of their age, gender or ethnicity. must feel they connected to members of the minority group. This matches what other researchers have found: one of the most powerful influences on the development of children’s attitudes, are children themselves. What works to reduce prejudice and discrimination? Jane Elliot’s 1968 controversial ‘classroom experiment’ is sometimes considered an example of empathy training. Editor’s Note: Britney L. Jones, Neag School doctoral candidate in the Learning, Leadership, and Educational Policy program, prepared the following issue brief — in affiliation with the Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA) — examining school and district policies and practices aimed at eliminating racism. Understanding Prejudice offers an extensive list online of many such books (see Resources). We were most interested in what might happen if a pupil’s peer group urged them to exclude those who were in the opposing team in the drawing competition, but the school stepped in and told the children to behave inclusively. Teaching candidates in the Rutgers Alternate Route Program are exploring the phenomena of Stereotype Threat, a theory developed by social psychologists Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson to describe the anxiety students experience when confronted with situations in which they fear confirming negative stereotypes about their social groups, especially members of groups believed to be … The aim was to give the children the experience of being discriminated against. Souweidane's (2012) 'An Initial Test of an Intervention Designed to Help Youth Question Negative Ethnic Stereotypes' was based on perspective-taking principles and the idea of reducing prejudice by challenging stereotypes. The results of this study demonstrate the potential benefits of arranging for pupils to take part in minority group cultural activities. Despite multicultural schools, prejudice is not decreased as children of different races segregate … Empathy: asks someone to imagine their life as if they were part of the other group. By Tori DeAngelis. The best approach is likely to involve a blend of different activities and a well embedded culture of inclusivity to avoid activities feeling tokenistic. Indeed, they may even lead to a sense that including other cultures is something to be ‘ticked off a list’ leaving pupils more isolated and less included. Such rules exist within children’s groups: for example, to share or not to share, how to dress, or who can be included in an activity. This type of purposeful grouping can be replicated in almost any classroom as long as there is some diversity among pupils. In conclusion, recommendations are made about age- and context-appropriate methods to reduce prejudice in schools and future topics to address in basic research. In this case, the children were asked to imagine that they were going to compete in a drawing competition. She explained that although her school celebrated GRT history month, they made no mention of the hundreds of thousands of Gypsies murdered in the Holocaust when covering this topic. (Baldwin, p.190) This quote from James Baldwin reflects the duty and moral obligation of modern educators to attempt to eliminate racism in today's classrooms. The class that took part in the activity had less prejudiced beliefs and were more likely to be willing to spend time with a group of other race children than the control group who did not experience the activity. That’s good advice for students taking exams. When children were told by a teacher to be more inclusive, it had a positive effect on their attitudes towards their competitors. 9. In second grade, if there was somebody I thought was cool, all I had to do was go up to them and ask, “do you want to be friends?” and boom - … Stanford University researcher Carol S. Dweck has found a way to change people’s minds to reduce prejudice and bullying. In 2013, researchers investigated whether this contact and social connectedness with others leading to sharing in cultural activities could reduce prejudice. New York: Teachers College Press, 1999. In a study we just published, my colleagues and I carried out an experiment with 229 seven to 11-year-olds to explore this further. The research challenged my assumptions about children’s prejudice and left me concerned: if children become racially biased so young, partly through observing adults’ unconscious behaviour, how can we reduce prejudice? While teachers’ and staffs’ primary responsibility is to teach academic content, challenging behaviors can … Print version: page 40. Anti-racist teaching involves teaching pupils about historic and current events rooted in prejudice and discrimination, such as the Holocaust or the Slave Trade. Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools, by Walter Stephan. By attending school, children agree to adhere to this set of generic rules. A review of the evidence. (Baldwin, p.190) This quote from James Baldwin reflects the duty and moral obligation of modern educators to attempt to eliminate racism in today's classrooms. Luke McGuire receives funding from the Economic and Social Research Council. Having a friend from another group may also remove barriers to empathy and caring, which in turn decreases prejudice. Activities for Teaching about Prejudice and Discrimination - Use these activities to discuss different areas of prejudice and ways to work toward appreciation. Look at the culture of the whole school and consider: what your school is required to do under the Public Sector Equality Duty creating a school culture that reflects safety and inclusivity The next week the roles were reversed. But the “bad news” is that kids can easily pick up prejudice from society at large unless parents do something about it. Teachers and children must work together to develop a harmonious multicultural environment in British schools. To prevent prejudice-based bullying, use a whole school approach. Instead, reinforce children's natural curiosity, and explain the distinction between noticing social differences and being prejudiced. ... stereotyping and prejudice had decreased. As a result, many schools are redoubling their efforts to create an inclusive culture and reduce prejudice. This depends on highlighting similarities between groups rather than differences. Do not minimize or pretend not to see differences in race, religion, disability, or other attributes. Prejudice Reduction. Write an article and join a growing community of more than 117,600 academics and researchers from 3,794 institutions. School charters emphasising equality and inclusion that are endorsed by teachers and make clear there will be genuine consequences for those who flaunt the rules, should be encouraged. Prejudice reduction as part of multicultural education decreases student disassociation with school, leading to learning environments that affirm the values of equitable education and social justice. This article offers a definition of prejudice and then reviews the literature on relevant theories of its development and methods to identify and map it. Conditions of Group Contact to Reduce Conflict . Topics are taught with an explicit focus on how structural prejudice and racism caused or supported such events. It’s also good advice for the organisations setting and moderating exams. However, some researchers argue that anti-racist teaching could lead to an increased emphasis on ‘ingroups’ and ‘outgroups’ or feelings of ‘anger or self-righteousness.’ Furthermore, such sessions could prove humiliating for members of the minority group being discussed. Educators and policy makers are learning from past experience as they devise programs to prevent or reduce prejudice and discrimination (see Banks, 2009 edited book on multicultural education). An inclusive and open learning or working environment that consists of multiple ethnicities can help promote understanding and tolerance. “Racist and anti-immigration views held by children,” warned a recent headline in The Guardian, reporting the results of a survey of nearly 6,000 British schoolchildren conducted by the charity Show Racism the Red Card. This could include events that specifically celebrate other cultures or groups, for example, ‘Black History Month’ and ‘Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (GRT) history month’. Much of the evidence within this strand of research suggests that, on a day-to-day basis, children do not hold negative attitudes towards children outside of these groups, and are more worried about not being excluded themselves. 143 pp. Activities for Teaching about Prejudice and Discrimination - Use these activities to discuss different areas of prejudice and ways to work toward appreciation. Therefore, like all sophisticated and powerful educational efforts, reducing prejudice requires a conscious effort to go beyond intuitive, lazy thinking and primal instincts; it is an act of the will involving critical thinking, self-analysis, metacognition, and deliberate selflessness—things that might not come naturally to us and have to be worked on. Child ’ s attitudes to ‘ prosocial ’ behaviour to want to alleviate it ’ other! ( Banks, 1994 ) were asked to imagine their life as if they going! [ Commentaries from Bernadette M. Hickman-Maynard, Robert L. Selman and Clark McKown are included work! A necessary component of multicultural education ‘ may increase the likelihood that children will place in! Developing social awareness is a lifelong process, and violence in schools to help members the! Resources ) about others knowledge and understanding of bullying and violent behaviour between students in Iowa, divided class... 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