Aptitude. The average read access time in nanoseconds (up to 2 decimal place) is ____________ . Test Series for GATE CS 2020. The number of bits in the TAG, LINE and WORD fields are respectively: Consider a disk pack with 16 surfaces, 128 tracks per surface and 256 sectors per track. (S3) An implied accumulator register. OP Ri, Rj, Rk The average memory access time (in nanoseconds) in executing the sequence of instructions is __________. Consider an instruction pipeline with four stages (S1, S2, S3 and S4) each with combinational circuit only. Instruction … Consider a 4-way set associative cache (initially empty) with total 16 cache blocks. The designer of the system also has an alternate approach of using the DMA controller to implement the same transfer. A float type variable X is assigned the decimal value of -14.25. Computer Organization & Architecture Notes, GATE Computer Science Notes, GATE Topic Wise Notes, Ankur Gupta GATE Notes, GATE Handwritten Notes, Topper Notes x = c * c; We have also provided number of questions asked since 2007 and average weightage for each subject. P3: Five-stage pipeline with stage latencies 0.5 ns, 1 ns, 1 ns, 0.6 ns, 1 ns. It needs to support 45 instructions, which have an immediate operand in addition to two register operands. Consider a 4-way set associative cache consisting of 128 lines with a line size of 64 words. c = 20 It must be a trap instruction 2. GATE Computer science and engineering subject Computer Organization and Architecture (Match Logic) from morris mano for computer science and information technology students doing B.E, B.Tech, M.Tech, GATE exam, Ph.D. The miss rate L2 expressed correct to two decimal places is _________. Assuming that all operations take their operands from registers, what is the minimum number of registers needed to execute this program without spilling? Consider the following processors (ns stands for nanoseconds). (B) represents organization of single computer containing a control unit, processor unit and a memory unit. /* Initialize array ARR to 0.0 * / The cache is managed using 32 bit virtual addresses and the page size is 4Kbyts. III. This Test will cover complete Computer Organization and Architecture with very important questions, starting off from basics to advanced level. Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial provides in-depth knowledge of internal working, structuring, and implementation of a computer system. The speed up achieved in this pipelined processor is _____. Consider evaluating the following expression tree on a machine with load-store architecture in which memory can be accessed only through load and store instructions. S2:There is an anti-dependence between instructions I2 and I4 Each DMA transfer cycle takes two clock cycles to transfer one byte of data from the device to the memory. Consider a RISC machine where each instruction is exactly 4 bytes long. Questions on Machine Instructions and Programs. If the associativity of a processor cache is doubled while keeping the capacity and block size unchanged, which one of the following is guaranteed to be NOT affected? The width of the physical address on a machine is 40 bits. The miss rate of L1 and L2 respectively are: The read access times and the hit ratio for different caches in a memory hierachy are as given below. Assume that a direct mapped data cache consisting of 32 lines of 64 bytes each is used in the system. The address of a sector is given as a triple 〈c,h,s〉, where c is the cylinder number, h is the surface number and s is the sector number. The lines of a set are placed in sequence one after another. So, what I would suggest is : 1. When two 8-bit  number A7....A0  and  B7 ..... B0  in 2's  complement representation (with A0 and B0 as the least significant bits) are added using ripple-carry adder, the sum bits obtained are S7.....S0 and the  carry bits are C7....C0 . The number of cycles needed by the four instructions I1, I2, I3, I4 in stages S1, S2, S3, S4 is shown below: What is the number of cycles needed to execute the following loop?                                 DIV R6, R2, R3 The main memory block numbered j must be mapped to any one of the cache lines from. When there is a miss in L1 cache and a hit in L2 cache, a block is transferred from L2 cache to L1 cache. Function locals and parameters The first tage(with delay 800 picoseconds) is replaced with a functionally equivalent design involving two stages with respective delays 600 and 350 picoseconds. 20 nanoseconds and 200 nanoseconds for L1 cache, L2 cache and main memory unit respectively. Whereas, Organization defines the way the system is structured so that … Improve your score by attempting Computer Organization and Architecture objective type MCQ questions listed along with detailed answers. Computer Organization. Question 7 Explanation: For a 4 bit multiplier, there are 2 4 * 2 4 combinations, i.e., 2 8 combinations. P2: Four-stage pipeline with stage latencies 1 ns, 1.5 ns, 1.5 ns, 1.5 ns. The test contains all the questions related to Computer Organization and Architecture. The CALL instruction is of two words, the first is the op-code and the second word is the starting address of the subroutine(one word = 2 bytes). e = c + d Each instruction has five distinct fields, namely, opcode, two source register identifiers, one destination register identifier, and a twelve-bit immediate value. Assume that all the cache are direct mapped caches. The size of the data count register of a DMA controller is 16 bits. Assume that under identicalv conditions, for the same input, a program running on p2 takes 25% less time but incurs 20% more CPI (clock cycles per instruction) as compared to the program running on p2. A 5-stage pipelined processor has Instruction Fetch (IF), Instruction Decode (ID), Operand Fetch (OF), Perform Operation (PO) and Write Operand (WO) stages. Ideal way to study CAO would be to go through syllabus and recommended books then solving previous year questions and questions at the end of the chapter in the book. MUL R5, R0, R1 Which one of the following memory block will NOT be in cache if LRU replacement policy is used? b = c + e A 32-bit instruction word has an opcode, two register operands and an immediate operand. I4: ADD R3, R2, R4 2020 © GATE-Exam.in | Complete Solution for GATE, Computer Science and Information Technology, Machine instructions and addressing modes, Memory Hierarchy: Cache, Main Memory and Secondary Storage, Load the starting address of the subroutine in. return d + f For this application, the miss rate of L1 cache is 0.1; the L2 cache experiences, on average, 7 misses per 1000 instructions. d = 5 + e Array ARR is located in memory starting at the beginning of virtual page 0xFF000 and stored in row major order. For computer based on three-address instruction formats, each address feild can be used to specify which of the following: The list ratio for read access is only 80%. The main memory blocks are numbered 0 onwards. The memory system uses a 60-MHz clock. Which of the following is/are true of the auto-increment addressing mode? This test is meant for the students who are preparing for GATE(Computer Science an IT). The memory is byte addressable. The IF, ID, OF and WO stages take 1 clock cycle each for any instruction. https://gradeup.co/.../computer-organization-and-architecture Consider a non-pipelined processor with a clock rate of 2.5 gigahertz and average cycles per instruction of four. a = 1 A CPU generally handles an interrupt by executing an interrupt service routine.      If count != 0 go to LOOP. The associativity of L2 must be greater than that of L1 Instruction fetches, In an instruction execution pipeline, the earliest that the data TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) can be accessed is, Consider a machine with a 2-way set associative data cache of size 64Kbytes and block size 16bytes. The cache block size is 8 words and the word size is 4 bytes. The size of the tag filed in bites is __________. Computer system architecture by M. Morris Mano.Computer architecture by Briggs. The stack pointer(SP) points to the top element of the stack. All instructions other than the branch instruction have an average CPI of one in both the designs. Which processor has the highest peak clock frequency? Assume that the contents of the data cache do not change in between the two accesses. (C) includes many processing units under the supervision of a common control unit (D) none of the above. The pipelined processor uses operand forwarding from the PO stage to the OF stage. The value of P/Q is __________. The number of memory references for accessing the data in executing the program completely is: Assume that the memory is word addressable. The maximum bandwidth for the memory system when the program running on the processor issues a series of read operations is __________$\times$ 106 bytes/sec. Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 1 (Execution, Stages and Throughput) ... GATE CS 2012 Computer Organization and Architecture CPU control design and Interfaces Discuss it. for (i = 0; i < 1024; i ++) SIMD represents an organization that _____. Get the study material and tips for upcoming GATE, BARC, ISRO, and other CS exams. In execution of a program, 60% of memory read are for instruction fetch and 40% are for memory operand fetch. The (internal) operation of different memory modules may overlap in time, but only one request can be on the bus at any time. Consider the following instruction sequence. Assume that a direct mapped cache having 512 cache line is used with this machine. A program has 20% branch instructions which execute in the EX stage and produce the next instruction pointer at the end of the EX stage in the old design and at the end of the EX2 stage in the new design. Consider a 4 stage pipeline processor. Consider the following program segment. Consider a processor with byte-addressable memory. Consider a processor with 64 registers and an instruction set of size twelve. In addition, the tutor has solved a number of GATE problems related to Computer Organization to reinforce the concepts. P1: Four-stage pipeline with stage latencies 1 ns, 2 ns, 2 ns, 1 ns. The number of rows of memory cells in the DRAM chip is 2, The size of the physical address space of a processor is 2. The address 〈400,16,29〉 corresponds to sector number: For a magnetic disk with concentric circular tracks, the seek latency is not linearly proportional to the seek distance due to. Machine Instructions. Consider a 2-way set associative cache with 256 blocks and uses LRU replacement, Initially the cache is empty. II. The number of bits in the tag field of an address is, The minimum number of D flip—flops needed to design a mod-258 counter is. The time taken for a single refresh operation is 100 nanoseconds. Logic Gates | Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial with introduction, evolution of computing devices, functional units of digital system, basic operational concepts, computer organization and design, store program control concept, von-neumann model, parallel processing, computer registers, control unit, … The capacity of the disk pack and the number of bits required to specify a particular sector in the disk are respectively: Consider a pipelined processor with the following four stages: IF: Instruction Fetch II. Which of the characteristics above are used in the design of a, A 32-bit wide main memory unit with a capacity of 1 GB is built using 256M × 4-bit DRAM chips. MBR ← PC Binary logic deals with binary variables and with operations that assume a logical meaning. PDF | On Nov 26, 2018, Firoz Mahmud published Lecture Notes on Computer Architecture | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Computer Architecture and Organisation Q No: 48 The access time of cache memory is 15 ns and main memory is 100 ns. double ARR [1024] [1024]; The effective address of the memory location is obtained by the addition of a constant 20 and the contents of register R2. Cache memory is located on the path between the processor and the … If the clock frequency of p1 is 1GHz, then the clock frequency of p2 (in GHz) is _________. The size of the address bus of the processor is at least bits. An exception cannot be allowed to occur during execution of an RFE instruction, For inclusion to hold between two cache levels L1 and L2 in a multi-level cache hierarchy, which of the following are necessary? We have also provided number of questions asked since 2007 and average weightage for each subject. Filed Under: CO & Architecture, Subjects Tagged With: computer architecture, computer organization, gate-material, gatecse discussion Primary Sidebar Search this website WB: Write Back. Which one of the following is a possible operation performed by this sequence? Generally, we tend to think computer organization and computer architecture as same but there is slight difference. The DMA controller requires 20 clock cycles for initialization and other overheads. Each instruction must be stored in memory in a byte-aligned fashion.      Store in memory at address given by address register Which of the following best reflects the addressing mode implemented by this instruction for the operand in memory? II. The size of double is 8Bytes. The amount of ROM needed to implement a 4 bit multiplier is, Register renaming is done in pipelined processors. Which of the following lines of the data cache will be replaced by new blocks in accessing the array for the second time? Each instruction can have atmost two source operands and one destination operand. I4 : STORE Memory [R4] ← R1 The PO stage takes 1 clock cycle for ADD and SUB instructions, 3 clock cycles for MUL instruction, and 6 clock cycles for DIV instruction respectively. In a k-way set associative cache, the cache is divided into v sets, each of which consists of k lines. A certain processor deploys a single-level cache. d = a + b On a non-pipelined sequential processor, a program segment, which is a part of the interrupt service routine, is given to transfer 500 bytes from an I/O device to memory. A program consisting of 12 instructions I1, I2, I3, …, I12 is executed in this pipelined processor. The minimum number of times the DMA controller needs to get the control of the system bus from the processor to transfer the file from the disk to main memory is ____________. The time to perform addition using this adder is. The following sequence of accesse to memory blocks, (0, 128, 256, 128, 0, 128, 256, 128, 1, 129, 257, 129, 1, 129, 257, 129). Consider the following processor design characteristics. The miss rate of L1 cache is twise that of L2. An application incurs 1.4 memory accesses per instruction on average. Also, the EX stage is split into two stages (EX1, EX2) each of latency 1 ns. All the numbers are in decimal. The only data memory references made by the program are those to array ARR, The total size of the tags in the cache directory is. c = a + b; This is not the official website of GATE. GATE 2019 CSE syllabus contains Engineering mathematics, Digital Logic, Computer Organization and Architecture, Programming and Data Structures, Algorithms, Theory of Computation, Compiler Design, Operating System, Databases, Computer Networks, General Aptitude. It consist of approx 8-10 marks questions every year in GATE Exam. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION - Logic gates, Boolean Algebra, Combinational Circuits 1. The only allowed compiler optimization is code motion, which moves statements from one place to another while preserving correctness.      Increment the address register Conditional and unconditional branch instruction use PC-relative addressing mode with Offset specified in bytes to the target location of the branch instruction. When there is a miss in both L1 cache and L2 cache, first a block is transferred from main memory to L2 cache, and then a block is transferred from L2 cache to L1 cache. I. Assume that all variables are dead after this code segment. It must be a privileged instruction If no intermediate results can be stored in memory, what is the minimum number of registers needed to evaluate this expression? I. The processor needs to transfer a file of 29, 154 kilobytes from disk to main memory. I2 : SUB R4 ← R5 - R6 e = c + a; PC ← Y d = c * a; e = b + f Do not apply any optimization other than optimizing register allocation. MAR ← X 17 Free videos ₹3,500.00. Each cache tag directory entry contains, in addition to address tag, 2 valid bits, 1 modified bit and 1 replacement bit. Control hazard penalties can be eliminated by dynamic branch prediction, The use of multiple register windows with overlap causes a reduction in the number of memory accesses for, I. else { (S1) A memory operand These notes will be helpful in preparing for semester exams and competitive exams like GATE, NET and PSU's. Cache memory in computer architecture is a special memory that matches the processor speed. These video classes have been developed based on the latest GATE syllabus and will be useful for undergraduate students of Computer Science and Information Technology as well as those preparing for GATE exams. Computer Networks. What is the minimum number of spills to memory in the compiled code? Audience. I. Bypassing can handle all RAW hazards Computer Organization and Architecture Quiz Start online test with daily Computer Organization and Architecture quiz for Gate computer science engineering exam 2019-20. What is the total size of memory needed at the cache controller to store meta-data (tags) for the cache? Get the notes of all important topics of Computer Organization & Architecture subject. The subject includes Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, Data‐path, and control unit, Instruction pipelining, Memory hierarchy: cache, Main memory, Secondary storage, and I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode) with a weightage of 6-9 marks. The complete array is accessed twice. The number of clock cycles taken for the execution of the above sequence of instructions is _________. 1. The block size in L2 cache is 16 words. The representation of X in hexadecimal notation is, Consider a main memory system that consists of 8 memory modules attached to the system bus, which is one word wide. This sequence of instructions is to be executed in a pipelined instruction processor with the following 4 stages: (1) Instruction Fetch and Decode(IF), (2) Operand Fetch (OF), (3) Perform Operation(PO) and (4) Write back the result (WB). Consider a two-level cache hierarchy with L1 and L2 caches. Assume that all registers, including Program Counter (PC) and Program Status Word (PSW), are of size 2 bytes. If it is included in an Instruction Set Architecture, then an additional ALU is required for effective address calculation It is useful in creating self-relocating code Consider a machine with a byte addressable main memory of 220 bytes, block size of 16 bytes and a direct mapped cache having 212 cache lines. After execution of the CALL instruction, the value of the stack pointer is. Consider a 3 GHz (gigahertz) processor with a three-stage pipeline and stage latencies $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\tau_1\;,\;\tau_2}$, and $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\tau_3\;}$ such that $\style{font-family:'Times New Roman'}{\tau_1=3\tau\;=\;3\tau_2/4=2\tau_3}$. Best Books for Computer Organization and Architecture, GATE Weightage Analysis for Computer Organization, Computer Organization and Architecture Important Formulas, Notes on Machine Instructions and Addressing Modes, AAI ATC Recruitment Notification 2020 for Junior Executive (JE) ATC, AO & Technical, AFCAT 1 2021 Notification Out: Check Vacancies, Apply Online Link, Fee & Eligibility, NIELIT Scientist B & Technical Assistant A Answer Key 2020: Download, Key Challenge, PSU Recruitment through GATE 2021 - Jobs in PSU through GATE Score, Machine Instructions and Addressing Modes. 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To main memory is 18 clock cycles for the students who are preparing semester. This pipelined processor is divided into v sets, each of latency 1 ns the Index fields respectively the... 800, 500, 400 and 300 picoseconds mode implemented by this instruction for the and! With total 16 cache blocks optimization other than the branch instruction with L1 L2. Ideal ways starting off from basics to advanced level of SP is ( 5FA0 )?... Can have atmost two source operands and one Output all stages are perfectly balanced.Assume that there is slight.... Of execution of a digital circuit if it is designed as a 16-way set-associative cache memory is 90 nanoseconds 1.1! Stage depends on the second and the … computer Organization and Architecture test contains all the cache is 4.. Per instruction on average the EX stage as follows: the content of PC just before the lines a! 0Th sector is addressed as 〈0,0,0〉, the first register stores the result the.
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