Opening of flowers only after the completion of pollination is known as chasmogamy. Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus). Symptoms are similar on green grams. Antepetalous stamens are joined to petals by hairy filaments. The immature stages (larvae) do not feed on plants.  Prothorax – orange in colour. Chickpea, annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae), widely grown for its nutritious seeds. Deep ploughing will also encourage the breakdown of infected plant debris. This portal has been developed as part of the national level initiative - India Development Gateway (InDG), dedicated for providing information / knowledge and ICT based knowledge products and services in the domain of social development. Tip wilter / giant coreid bug (Anoplocnemis curvipes) is about 2.5cm long. The nymphs appear as pale yellow oval specks to the naked eye. Females lay eggs on the lower leaf surface in spiral patterns (like fingerprints) of white material secreted by the female. Practise crop rotation with non-legumes such cereals. Crop Protection Compendium, 2005 edition. And field observations for every pest though the way. Leaf spots first appear as small, water-soaked or light-green areas on leaflets. (c) James Litsinger. InDG is a Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) Government of India initiative and is executed by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Hyderabad. The entry hole is large and circular. If grams are intercropped with maize, the maize spacing is the same as in pure stand, but the grams are interplanted mid-way between the maize rows. Early weeding is recommended. The pod sucking Riptortus bug (Riptortus dentipes) is about 1.5cm long. Bean flies are important only during the seedling stage (up to 4 weeks after germination). Remove and destroy crop residues and all plant parts with symptoms of damage by bean flies. When using oxen plough for planting, place the seed at the side of the furrow. Close-up, immature thrips (left) and adults. The virus is not seed transmitted in mungbean or soybean. Foliage beetles have been reported as pests of green grams in West Africa. The black bean aphid is a widely distributed pest of beans. Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes and presence of slug like caterpillar. Prepare the beds, raised about 20 cm and spaced 1 m from the centre of one bed to the centre of the next. In cases of heavy infestation, many plants die. If necessary, spray neem extracts. If necessary, spraying should be done in the morning when the immature stages are exposed. Cultivate thorough to ensure weed-free plots. Internal tissues are eaten severely and completely hollowed out. The spots gradually increase in size and ultimately some leaves turn completely yellow. Nomenclature, Biology, and Nature of Damage; 4 Green gram Insight. It is a polyphagous, infesting gram, lablab, safflower, chillies, groundnut, tobacco, cotton etc. Development of the first stage larvae occurs within the egg where the first molt occurs. The roots are seriously hampered in their function of uptake and transport of water and nutrients, Plants wilt during the hot part of day, especially under dry conditions and are often stunted, Nematode infection predisposes plants to fungal and bacterial root pathogens. Conserve and attract. Sheppard, Geographical Distribution of Green gram in Africa. Good weed control will also improve aeration around the crop so that the plants dry faster, this will reduce the chances for bacterial spread and infection. Aphids are also vectors of virus diseases. Damage by African bollworm on French beans. In Meru, Kenya, green gram is a preferred intercrop for millet, each said to protect the other against diseases and pests. The incidence of bean blight can also be reduced if beans are grown with maize rather than in a monoculture. Androecium: Stamens are male organs and produce pollen grains. Rotate grams with non-host plants such as maize or sunflower to break the development cycle of the pest. They cause rotting of seeds before emergence and seedlings after emergence from the soil. Practise post harvest tillage to expose the grubs in the soil to the sun and to. 14) Floral biology and hybridization techniques in okra, onion and cowpea. Seed Germination. Pods of infected plants are reduced in size and turn yellow in colour. The plant loses more water than normal through the damaged tissues and plant pathogens penetrate the injured plant easily. Like most pulses moisture content at storage should not be above 13%. Parts of flower: 1. Proper drying of grains is very important to prevent the growth of fungi and contamination with aflatoxins. Avoid planting green gram for more than one season because toxic residues and disease organisms from the previous green gram crop may affect the following crop adversely. Conserve natural enemies. Of the total number of Spur feterita flowers opening, 72.1 percent opened between midnight and 4 a.m. ), green stink bugs (Nezara viridula, Acrosternum acutum), and Riptortus bugs (Riptortus spp) are the most important pests of green gram at the podding stage. They are not covered with white material. Maggot feeding facilitates the entry of disease-causing microorganisms leading to secondary infections. 3. Parasitic wasps in particular are very important for natural control of whiteflies. Long distance spread of rust is by wind. Plough and harrow before planting. Foliage beetle feeding on pumpkin leaf, the adult is 4-7mm long, Pod-borers (African bollworm, Legume pod-borer, lima pod borer). The analysis revealed the presence of both additive and non-additive gene effects. Neem products are reported to repel bugs. The life cycle may be completed rapidly, often in less than 2 weeks. The fungal agent (pathogen) has a wide host range and survives on various hosts in off-season. Generally 13-26% of the pods are damaged. Severely affected parts get shrivelled and distorted. In Kenya, harvesting when 95% of pods have turned black is recommended. They can cause serious stand reductions at the seedling stage. Similar water-soaked spots develop on pods. The bacteria are readily spread by water, and walking or working in the field while plants are wet will splash the bacteria and create wounds. Start studying Biology Midterm. Black gram is somewhat more hairy than green gram; the white hilum also protrudes from the seed. In addition, plants may become contaminated by honeydew produced by aphids and sooty mould growing on honeydew. Bacterial blight on beans. Management. To know the IPM practices for Blackgram & Greengram, click here. Symptoms are similar on green grams. A large number of flowers at different stages of development abscise due to high temperature resulting in the reduction of yield in this crop. 13) Floral biology and hybridization techniques in brinjal, chilli, tomato. Onions are low in nutrients but are valued for their flavour They are eaten whole or split. White powdery patches appear on leaves and other green parts, which later become dull coloured. This mode or peak of blooming varied from night to night, but it appeared between 1 and 2 a.m. more often than during all other 1-hour periods. Flowers attacked may be discoloured and have damaged or missing reproductive parts. They are a threat, when present in large numbers since they can defoliate young plants. The shiny black weevils bore holes in fresh green cowpea pods and lay eggs into the pods. Losses of seeds up to 92% have been reported in Nigeria. This pest occurs during October to December and of late it is also occurring from July. African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) on beans. Attacked young leaves become twisted. Damaged pods have small, darkened entry holes on the surface. Transfer the mixture into a deep bowl, add all the remaining ingredients and mix well. Hand pick and destroy eggs and caterpillars. Wallingford, UKÂ, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. The pod weevil (Piezotrachelus varius or Apion varium). It does most serious damage on pods. Pulses The seeds of Cajanus cajan (red gram), Vigna mungo (black gram), Vigna radiata (green gram), Vigna ungiculata (horse gram) and Cicer arietinum (chick pea) are rich in … Pod borers such as the African bollworm (Helicoverpa armiguera), the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata), and the lima bean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) can cause serious economic damage.  Propagation is by seed. Legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata) reach a length of 18 mm, Ⓒ Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org): P. Ooi. This whitefly sucks sap from cassava leaves. Arachis hypogea (Groundnut) Glycine man (Soybean) Timber plants. Diseased plants are stunted, mature late and produce very few flowers and pods. The disease also creates forced maturity of the infected plants which results in heavy yield losses. It can reduce subsequent thrips attacks by killing pupae in the soil. Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) Pisum sativum (Pea) Vicia faba (Broad bean) Cicer arietinum (Gram) Phaseolus aureus (Green gram) Oil-yielding plants. Source PROTA, Grams are annual legume crops grown for their seed. Nymph: On hatching - Oval, scale-like, greenish white. For instance. Most species of plant parasitic nematodes have a relatively simple life cycle consisting of the egg, four larval stages and the adult male and female. Piper). However, if planted in heavily eroded soil gram will benefit from any kind of manure or compost.Â, Grams planted at the end of the long rains are normally intercropped into other major crop. The larvae and pupae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus) are normally found in the seeds of pulses. Green grams usually mature in 60 to 90 days. Branch Head Office. Formation of galls on host root system is the primary symptom, Roots branch profusely starting from the gall tissue causing a ‘beard root’ symptom, In severely infected plants the root system is reduced and the rootlets are almost completely absent. Green grams is a leguminous crop of species Vigna native to the Indian sub continent but also cultivated in hot and dry regions of southern Europe, southern united states and eastern Africa. Groundnut aphid colony on cowpea. Wash and soak the green gram in enough water in a deep bowl for 3 hours. Pupation occurs inside the stem. It may feed on petioles and leaves, but prefer flowers. Pod production is low and pods are deformed. Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage. act, 2001- Plant breeders’ right, Farmers right, Biodiversity act, 2002; Germplasm registration. Alternate, petiolate, stipulate, stipules 1/4 to 1/2 inch long attached near the base, compound (trifoliate), leaflets dark green, two to four inches long, entire, acuminate, pubescent on both the sides, net veined. They also cause significant damage to flower buds and flowers. Seedlings attacked by bean flies may wilt or die. Some whiteflies cause major damage to cassava as vectors of cassava viruses. Leaves of older plants may be yellow and stunted. The green grams are the most commonly grown in Kenya. Ⓒ Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org): Pankaj Oudhia. Drying up of infected leaves is the main symptom. Ⓒ Peter Credland. Ⓒ Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org): J.W. Alatae (winged form) 1.4 to 2.1 mm. Calyx (green arcs) consists of five free sepals; corolla (red arcs) consists of five fused petals. Rust on lower leaf surface of French beans. Field Crops Technical Handbook. Chickpeas are an important food plant in India, Africa, and Central and South America. Young larva feeds on the leaves for some time and then attacks fruits. Large infestations (3 or more mag gots per plant) may cause wilting and may even cause plant death, especially in younger plants particularly if dam age occurs in the plant’s hypocotyl (basal stem) region. They live in the soil and eat grasshopper eggs, and are therefore beneficial. Grams are very susceptible to bruchid (bean weevil) attack and are best stored immediately after sun drying either in airtight drums tins, gunny bags and be kept in a clean, ventilated place. Post harvest profile of green gram. Pod sucking bugs such as giant coreid bugs (Anoplocnemis curvipes), spiny brown bugs (Clavigralla spp. Your daily values may be higher or lower, depending on your calorie needs. They feed inside the pod reaching a length of 14 mm. Cultural practices are important in controlling bean blights. The adults are medium to large (2.5 cm in length), usually black with large yellow spots and a red band across the abdomen, which sometimes changes into yellow spots. Floral Biology 9. Each segment has dark spots that form a distinct series along the length of the body. Ⓒ Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org, Bacterial blight (bean blight) (Xanthomonas pv.
2020 floral biology of green gram